其实正是1个「省略」的概念,要么从句动词是日常动词

目录

形容词性从句的一大特征是,它的连接词与先行词意义重复,于是就有了简便易行的退路。借使再将从句中的动词作者相应的处理,就能将形容词性从句简化。

形容词性从句简化后的款型五花八门,常见的重庆大学有以下二种。

第叁十二章 减化从句
第三十三章 关系从句减化

一 、简化为分词

那种景色最好广泛,当提到代词是从句的主语,而从句又不带有语气助动词,那么就能够将从句简化为分词的花样。

第贰十二章 减化从句

历史观语法动用了五光十色的称呼来证实一种概念,结果都得不到证实清楚。这个名称包涵
动状词(含未来分词、过去分词、动名词、动词不定词、原形动词)、非限定动词、非限定
从句、同位语、分词构句、独立词组等等。其实,全体这一个名称都能够用同二个观念来领会:
减化从句(reduced clauses)

1.简化为今日分词

形容词性从句简化为当今分词,不外乎两种状态,要么从句是展开时态,要么从句动词是日常动词。

一旦从句是be+V-ing的展开时态,那么将be动词省略掉后,就成为了现行反革命分词形式。

例如:

The girl who is dancing there is my sister.

本条句子中,形容词性从句的连接词who在从句中作主语,和它的先期词兼主句主语重复,所以可以省略掉。同时,从句的be动词没有实际意义,也得以一向省略。于是,形容词性从句就简化成了今天分词的花样:

The girl dancing there is my sister.

若果从句的动词是一般动词,遵照之前讲的从句简化一般规则,直接将日常动词改成V-ing花样即可。

例如:

The man who wants to see you is waiting outside.

以此句子中,形容词性从句的连接词who如故能够简单,然后将动词wants直接改写成wanting,即可将从句简化为今天分词形式:

The man wanting to see you is waiting outside.

再来看其余四个例证:

Anyone that has visited Paris once will want to return.

本条句子中,形容词性从句的连接词that能够省略掉,不必多说。关键是动词怎么处理?

此时的动词既不是举办时,也不是经常形态,而是完成时。

实质上办法也很简单,我们几乎将实现时的助动词have/has/had作为是相似动词即可,也正是说能够一贯将have/has/had改成having

Anyone  having visited Paris once will want to return.

1. 称作减化从句

减化从句的定义,其实正是3个「省略」的概念。句子从最基本的单句进入比较复杂的复合句时,前后多少个从句之间往往会有重复的要素存在。所谓减化从句,正是把从属从句个中全体重复的、空洞的因素压缩省略掉,只剩下最精简的构造.

  1. I avoid something.
    (笔者制止一件事。)
  2. I am caught.
    (笔者被逮到。)
  3. I am unprepared.
    (小编没搞好准备。)
    那多少个句子若分成三个单句来发布如上,很醒目句型缺乏思新求变、风格不够成熟,而且表明力差
  4. I avoid [that I am caught] [when I am unprepared.]
    (不够简洁)
    讲述一件工作时,保持内外句子的主语相同是个好习惯,因为如此的叙说相比较有贯穿
    性、由此也就比较清楚。可是,主语的再度却又违反了精简的渴求。要想同时顾到清楚性以
    及简洁性、化解掉全数重复的要素,最好的办法正是应用减化从句:压缩掉全体重复、空洞
    的因素,将句子减化如下:
  5. I avoid being caught unprepared.

2.简化为过去分词

形容词性从句借使是被动态,那么对其展开简化后,得到的正是过去分词方式。

例如:

Grapes that are grown in the Champagne area make the best wines.

此句中的形容词性从句为被动态,将连接词和be动词省略之后,就改成了过去分词格局:

Grapes grown in the Champagne area make the best wines.

再如:

A student who has been trained at this school is guaranteed to excel in
any exam.

此句中又冒出了成就时,而且是被动态的姣好时。处理的办法有两种。

要是我们将has
been
用作是抒发“实现”的含义,那么就无法将其不难,而应该改成未来分词情势:

A student having been trained at this school is guaranteed to excel in
any exam.

唯独,因为过去分词除了能够表被动以外,也含有“达成”的含义在当中。此时,has
been
就照旧能够用作无意义,仍旧能够被省略掉:

A student trained at this school is guaranteed to excel in any exam.

2. 从属从句减化的底蕴观念

一.视 be
为动词,前面包车型客车片段蕴涵未来分词、过去分词、动词不定词、形容词、名词、介词词组等等一律视为主语补语。
二.以后分词视为形容词,字尾-ing 有「持续、进行」的暗示。
三.过去分词视为形容词,字尾-en 有「被动、达成」的授意。
四.动词不定词具有不鲜明语气,和语气助动词的话音相同。
五.语气助动词都得以改写为 be + to,意思差不离不变。
从属从句的减化,就要确立在上述这几点观念上。

② 、简化为形容词或名词

一经形容词性从句是S+V+C句型,并且补语是形容词,那么主语和动词简化掉之后,从句就只剩余了形容词。

例如:

The boy, who is usually tall and heavy for his age, wants to be a
wrestler.

其一句子中,形容词性从句的主语whobe动词省略掉之后,剩下的就只有作补语的形容词短语了:

The boy, usually tall and heavy for his age, wants to be a wrestler.

类似地,如果S+V+C句型的形容词性从句,其补语是名词,那么简化之后也就只剩下了名词。

例如:

The Great Wall of China, which is the largest man-made structure on
earth,no longer serves a military function.

此句中,形容词性从句的主语whichbe动词省略之后,剩下的一对唯有原来作补语的名词短语:

The Great Wall of China,the largest man-made structure on earth,no
longer serves a military function.

个中的有的也正是大家常说的同位语,通过这一个例子,咱们也精通了同位语的来因去果。

3. 从属从句减化的一块做法
  • 从属从句,不论是名词从句、表语从句、依然状语从句,减化的尺码都是一样的。全数的直属从句,共同的减化方式是省略掉主语与
    be 动词、只剩余补语部分来顶替原来的子
    句。从属从句的主语若是和主要性从句相同、大概是个空洞无意义的字,常常能够省略而不会
    影响到句子的意趣。假使从属从句的动词又是未曾描述能力的 be
    动词,那么省略掉 be 动词
    之后句子的意思仍旧不会遭到祸害。从属从句简单掉主语与 be
    动词、把叙述的做事全盘交
    给补语来做,那正是减化从句的三头做法。没有了主语与范围动词,原本的范围从句也就变
    成了非限定从句,原来的连词也就不再需求。因而,除非为了保留连词的字意,不然这些连词也都能够一并省略。
  • 请小心:在装有的动词个中,唯有 be
    动词是空的、没有意义,能够减化掉而不损伤到
    句子的意趣。从属从句减化时,动词的处理方式能够依照下列的尺码开始展览:
  1. 若有 be 动词,省略 be 动词。
    若有小说助动词,将文章助动词减化为表示不定词的 to。
  2. 若无 be 动词也无语气助动词、唯有普通动词,一律加上-ing。

叁 、简化为不定式

如上研商的前提都以形容词性从句的总是词作者从句的主语,并且从句中不带有语气助动词。

相反,如若从句中带有语气助动词,那么就奥考虑将其简化为不定式的款式,而且,这些时候也无需必要连接词一定要作从句的主语。

例如:

This is not the right thing which you should do.

从句的连接词which在从句中作宾语,不过它和先行词重复,因而得以简单;从句的主语you省略掉之后也不影响句意;最终,依据从句简化的貌似规则,语气助动词均可以简化成不定式情势:

This is not the right thing to do.

再如:

I’m looking for a motorcycle that my wife can ride.

以此句子中,形容词性从句的连接词that能够省略掉,can ride能够改成to
ride
。不过从句的主语my wife却不曾不难的退路,该怎么处理呢?

格局也相当的粗略,只需在从句主语前拉长叁个介词for即可:

I’m looking for a motorcycle for my wife to ride.

那正是说这样改了之后,也看不出何地简化了哟?

那就推来推去到从句简化的意思所在了。

从句简化的初衷,是为着扑灭掉句子中冗余的成份,使句子显得特别简约。

只是,随着从句简化越用更加多,大家发现,还足以经过从句简化的条条框框造出花样丰裕的的语句,使文章显得越来越有声有色,不那么鲁钝。

实际道理很简单,再非凡的三个句型,也无法通篇都用它。一篇小说能有三个不错的语句,固然是很成功的了。

所以,尽管有时从句简化并不可见达到规定的标准精简句子的指标,大家也还是要尝试一下,说不定就能获得不相同的效应。

3.1 省略 be 动词

[While he was taking a bath], Archimedes discovered the principle of
buoyancy.
(当她在泡澡的时候,阿基米得发现了浮力原理。)
While taking a bath, Archimedes discovered the principle of buoyancy.

3.2 语气助动词改写为表示不定词的 to

I expect [that I can finish the book on the way].
(笔者料想能够在半路看完这本书。)
I expect [to finish the book on the way].

3.3 普通动词加-ing

The runner [who finished second] won a small prize.
The runner [finishing second] won a small prize. (who finished
second → who was finishing second→ finishing second)

4 连词的处理

从属从句减化之后,因为不再有限制从句了,所以也就不再要求有连词。由此,无意义的连词如名词从句外加的
that、以及重新的连词如关系词,在减化从句中都不会留下来。至于疑问句改写而来的名词从句,减化之后原来的疑问词是有意义的连词,会保留下在减化从句中。还有正是状语从句外加的连词都有含义,在状语从句减化之后假如有供给,能够选用把连词留下来以保留字意。反之,假设意思够清楚,状语从句原来的连词在减化从句中也得以简单。

第③十三章 关系从句减化

  • 关系从句的减化,平日都是因为涉嫌代词刚好就是关系从句的主语,因为和先
    行词重复而爆发了能够减化的半空中。只要省略掉关系从句中这些重复的主语以及抽象的
    be 动词、留下补语,正是独立的关系从句减化。
1 减化为分词

提到从句最普遍的减化情形正是减化为后天分词词组或过去分词词组。那种景况,关系从句的主语应该就是事关代词,与先行词重复。关系从句的动词借使是形似语法所谓的进行式(be

  • Ving),省略掉 be
    动词之后就会剩下今后分词。假诺动词是相似语法所谓的被动态(be +
    Ven),省略掉 be
    动词之后剩下的正是过去分词。假设波及从句的动词是家常便饭动词,则供给添加-ing
    实行词类变化、变成未来分词。
1.1 今后分词

The man [who wants to see you] is waiting outside.
The man [wanting to see you] is waiting outside.

My Encyclopedia Britannica, [which is lying on the bookshelf and
gathering dust], has seldom been used.
(小编那套大英百科全书,摆在书架上积灰尘,没用过四次。)
My Encyclopedia Britannica, [lying on the bookshelf and gathering
dust], has seldom been used.

  • 即使涉嫌从句中的动词是完成时(have + Ven),减化的做法照旧加-ing
    做词类变化, 成为 having + Ven 那种造型的未来分词词组而保留下来

Anyone [that has visited Bali once] will want to return.
Anyone [having visited Bali once] will want to return.

1.2 过去分词

Grapes [that are grown in the Champagne area] make the best wines.
Grapes [grown in the Champagne area] make the best wines.

Microsoft, [which is accused of monopolizing the OS market], will
have to change its business practices.
(微软公司(它被控诉垄断操作系统集镇)必须改变它的买卖作风。)
Microsoft, [accused of monopolizing the OS market], will have to
change its business practices.

  • 若果涉嫌从句中的动词是 be 动词的成功时 have
    been,前边用过去分词当作被动语态的 补语,那么减化从句有二种做法

A student [who has been trained at this school] is guaranteed to
excel in any exam.
(经过本校练习出来的学习者保障其余考试都会议及展览现优异。)
A student [having been trained at this school] is guaranteed to
excel in any exam.
A student [trained at this school] is guaranteed to excel in any
exam.
过去分词(如 trained)本身就全体「完结景况」的授意。过去分词 trained
除了「被陶冶」的被动语态,也具备「已经演练过」的做四景况在内。而
having been 中间 的 be 动词没有意义,整个今后分词词组 having been
只好够发挥达成情形。既然后边的过去 分词已经能够抒发完毕意况,那么
having been 正是可有可无了。

2 减化为复合形容词

形容词唯有三种关键的职责:名词词组中以及补语地方。关系从句的职位一般是位于先行词的前边来修饰它。有一种减化的章程是把关系从句减化为3个复合形容词,然后放进名
词词组中的形容词地方。那种复合形容词,平常是以现行反革命分词或过去分词的模样出现,以下
分别介绍。

2.1 复合将来分词

“Big John” is a machine.
The machine drills tunnels.
“Big John” is a machine that drills tunnels.
“Big John” is a tunnel-drilling machine.

That magazine is for women. (那本笔记是妇女杂志。)
That magazine looks beautiful. (那本笔记看起来很美。)
That magazine which looks beautiful is for women.
That beautiful-looking magazine is for women.

I’m enjoying the sunset.
The sunset is vanishing fast.
I’m enjoying the sunset, which is vanishing fast.
I’m enjoying the fast-vanishing sunset.

2.2 复合过去分词

涉及从句减化为复合形容词,如若原先是被动语态,往往会化为复合过去分词的模样

I love these high peaks.
These high peaks are covered with snow.
I love these high peaks, [which are covered with snow].
I love these high, snow-covered peaks.

These apples are beginning to rot.
These apples were bitten by frost.
These apples, [which were bitten by frost], are beginning to rot.
These frost-bitten apples are beginning to rot.

2.3 减化为形容词

一旦提到从句是 S + V + C
的句型,主语补语是形容词,那么减化进度中省略掉主语和 be
动词之后,剩下的正是可是的形容词补语

A chimpanzee is an animal [that is capable of
reason].(黑猩猩是一种具有理质量力的动物。)
A chimpanzee is an animal [capable of reason].

The boy, [who is usually tall and heavy for his age], wants to be a
sumo wrestler.
The boy, [usually tall and heavy for his age], wants to be a sumo
wrestler.
本条减化关系从句前后打一对逗点隔断,因为它是不具提示作用的互补表达。

2.4 减化为名词

万一涉嫌从句是 S + V + C
的句型,而主语补语是个名词词组,那么在减化进程中省略掉主语与 be
动词之后,剩下的某个正是十分名词词组。这些名词词组是原来的主语补语,
也正是古板语法所谓的同位语

The Great Wall of China, [which is the largest man-made structure on
earth], no longer serves a military function.
The Great Wall of China, [the largest man-made structure on earth],
no longer serves a military function.

This movie features Tom Hanks, [who is my favorite movie star].
This movie features Tom Hanks, [my favorite movie star].

2.5 减化为不定词
  • 本章至此整理的气象都有多少个共同点:都是用关系代词当提到从句的主语,在开始展览减化时将以此与先行词重复的主语省略掉。可是,关系从句假如是减化为动词不定词,那么关
    系从句的主语能够有比较大的弹性:不必然是关乎代词当主语,而是一旦够清楚就能够减
    化。而且也不肯定都以用关系代词当关系词,关系副词也有恐怕。
  • 论及从句要想减化为动词不定词,有三个先决条件:动词词组必须带有语气助动词在内。只要有小说助动词,能够先把文章助动词改写为
    be + to,然后在开展减化时还是是把 be 动词省掉,剩下的就是动词不定词

This is not the right thing [which you should do].
关联从句中的关系代词 which 不再扮演主语的剧中人物,而是动词 should do
的宾语。因 为关联代词是宾语,可以优先省略,剩下 you should
do,再来实行减化:主语 you 省掉的 话句意依然通晓,动词部分有文章助动词
should,减化的结果就是成为表示不定词的 to
This is not the right thing [to do].

If you want a loan, our manager is the person [whom you should
see].
If you want a loan, our manager is the person [to see].
相比较简单的看法是把 to see 直接就是动词词组 should see
的词类变化看待:将限量动词 should see 变成动词不定词 to
see,能够当形容词使用、修饰 the person

If you like Cantonese food, I know just the place [where you can
go].
If you like Cantonese food, I know just the place [to go].

This is no time [when you should be fooling around].
This is no time [to be fooling around].

I’ll show you the way [how you can start this machine].
I’ll show you the way [to start this machine].

I’m glad because I have something [that I can look forward to].
I’m glad because I have something [to look forward to].

2.6 动词不定词的语态

关联从句减化为动词不定词,要专注的是一往无前或被动语态的论断

  1. There’s still one more person to notify.
  2. There’s still one more person to be notified.
  3. There’s still one more person [whom we must notify].
  4. There’s still one more person [who must be notified].
2.7 主动与被动孰优孰劣

如前所述,动词不定词有时候采主动与消沉皆可。然则,该用主动或许该用被动,其间
有高低之分,那是立陶宛共和国(Republic of Lithuania)语作文时应有要会咬定的事。古板语法因为只见到词组的层次,对于那一点一贯没有能够讲通晓。必须将动词不定词还原到从句的层次,才能够知其所以然。

  • 连贯性原则
    土耳其(Turkey)语修辞有两大供给:清楚与简单。清楚性的渴求能够呈未来很多方面,包蕴连贯性的
    原则。例如:前后四个句子、或左右五个从句,假诺主语相同、叙事的视角连贯,会是相比较清楚的描述。而且,主语相同时会相比简单举办减化,所以句子又足以变得更简明、进一步
    升高句子的修辞价值。

When John stepped into his office, the boss was seen waiting there by
him.
(前后三个从句的主语不一样,造成叙事不连贯,修辞效果较差)
When John stepped into his office, he saw the boss waiting there.
Stepping into his office, John saw the boss waiting there.
(进一步简化)

When John stepped out of his office, a car hit him.
When John stepped out of his office, he was hit by a car.(继续简化)
Stepping out of his office, John was hit by a car.

  • 以连贯性原则判断动词不定词的语态
    动词不定词中一经是利用主动语态和被动语态都能够的动静,那么该用哪三个相比较好?
    那么些难点应有把动词不定词还原为限定从句、并且使用连贯性原则来判断
  1. I must stay at the office.
  2. I have some people.
  3. I must notify them.
  4. I must stay at the office [because I have some people] whom I
    must notify.
  5. I must stay at the office because I have some people to notify.

  6. The news can’t be released yet.

  7. There are some people.
  8. These people must be notified first.
  9. The news can’t be released yet [because there are some people]
    who must be notified first.
  10. The news can’t be released yet [because there are some people]
    to be notified first.
    (这则音信还不能够发布,因为还某些人必须优先知会。)
  • 动词不定词的主语怎样交代
    如前所述,关系从句假诺减化为动词不定词,它的主语不必然是涉及代词、所以也不
    一定和主要从句有双重。如果这几个主语并不重复、也不是举棋不定的字眼,属于要求交代之列,
    那么涉及从句减化为动词不定词时,原来的主语平时是陈设在介词 for
    前面的地点来处理。

I’m looking for a motorcycle [that my wife can ride].
涉及从句中的关系代词 that(也便是which)是宾语,因为尚未逗点和先行词隔离所 以能够事先省略,剩下 my wife
can ride 再来进行减化:主语 my wife 和第1从句之间并无重 复,而且 my
wife 并不是像 people, somebody
之类含糊笼统的字,所以无法大致。遇到那种 意况,助动词 can
仍旧减化为表示不定词的 to,而万分动词不定词,原来的主语应该放在介 系词
for 后边的宾语地点来交代
I’m looking for a motorcycle [for my wife to ride].

3 连词的拍卖
  • 事关从句减化之后,原 本的连词(即关系词)都留不下来。
  • 涉嫌从句原本是限量从句,供给有个连词,而关系词就扮演连词的角色。关系从句经过减化之后,不再有主语与范围动词了,因而也就不再需求连词。关系从句的减化,平常都以因为关乎代词正是关联从句的主语、与第2从句的先行词重复,由此能够不难。那
    么在做减化从句的时候因为要简明主语,关系词自然就会被省略掉

Do you know the girl [who is sitting next to John]?
Do you know the girl [sitting next to John]?

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