实际上java中的pc有的指让JVM

1.连锁概念

Java虚拟机,以下简称JVM。

1.开篇

Arvin小编又来描写技术博文啦,做只小小笔记,顺便给有总人口扫扫盲,最近针对Java
的GC(垃圾回收机制)特别感谢兴趣。很已经知道当C/C++
这好像语言中得程序猿自己去操作对内存的管理 什么 alloc,
dealloc啦之类的。当初学OC的早晚也时有发生这般一章节节。但是说到java很少有人会说及管理内存这块文化。java相比C语言在内存管理这块先进了很多,因为java的内存是机关管理之,光机关这个词即知道老高档有麻痹有。但是java是怎么去创造和刑满释放内存的为。这个特别有必要扒一煮,毕竟听说有些面试上来就问java的GC是怎么work的。还有即使是及时无异片属于jvm的基本知识。

JVM于推行java程序的进程遭到见面管其所管理之内存划分为几单区域。

2.备知识

立刻首文章使是吗后面的GC分析来举行基础知识扫盲的,主要是讲jvm的内存分配。以前提到过jvm的内存就分割2片
一个库(stack)一个堆(Heap),其实这个是错的,没有如此简单,还是来接触小复杂的,好了来扒一扒jvm的内存

这些区域有个别的生命周期。有的依赖让JVM,有的拄让用户线程。

2.JVM内存

6片区域整合。

1.结构

图片 1

当下张图表明了,当运行java程序的下
jvm会产生的内存结构,而我们平常所说之stack 和heap 就是应和的jvm
stack和heap(heap中之新生代与直年代就篇稿子中无介绍,后面同样首GC分析的上
会去详细介绍,目前就算将他看成jvm就吓啊)

先后计数器 The pc Register

JVM可以而且支持多执线程。每个JVM线程有温馨的程序计数器。任何时刻,每个JVM线程执行单个方法的代码,叫做那个线程的时艺术。如果生方式无是地方的,那么程序计数器包含当前JVM正在实践之命地址。如果让此线程当前行之艺术是地方的,那么JVM的主次计数器的值是undefined。JVM的次序计数器足够去有一个归地址或者一个地方指针在指定的阳台。翻译自JVM规范。

简易来说

JVM执行非本地方法,它的次序计数器存指令地址。

JVM执行本地方法,它的顺序计数器存值undefined。

tag:线程隔离的数据区

1)程序计数器(Program counter Register)

The Java Virtual Machine can support many threads of execution at
once. Each Java Virtual Machine thread has its own pc (program
counter) register. At any point, each Java Virtual Machine thread is
executing the code of a single method, namely the current method for
that thread. If that method is not native, the pc register contains
the address of the Java Virtual Machine instruction currently being
executed. If themethodcurrently being executed by the thread is native
, the value of the Java Virtual Machine’s pc register is undefined.
The Java Virtual Machine’s pc register is wide enough to hold a
returnAddress or a native pointer on the specific platform.

java官网给的讲,学过汇编的同伴应该了解cpu中的pc register
用来储存指令的地方。 其实java中的pc
register的法则及汇编中的莫等同可做的凡相同桩事,就是记录了目前在运转指令的地址。如果java程序运行的凡native
language的指令则pc 里面存的凡免定义。
其实pc的大小可以忽略不计因为里面存的数据量太小了。重点是一旦小心一下,pc
register是线程私有的,所谓的线程私有就是各个一个线程有一个遥相呼应之pc
register,所以只有线程开始之早晚 pc reigster才会创建,线程结束了 pc
register自然就木有了。

Java虚拟机栈 Java Virtual Machine Stacks

每个JVM线程有一个私有JVM栈,与线程一起让创造。一个JVM栈存frames。一个JVM栈是接近于传统语言C的堆栈:它来地面变量和有些变量,在艺术调用和归中由在作用。因为JVM栈从不直接吃操作除了加大以及取frames,frames按照堆放置。对于JVM栈内存不待用到。

首先版java虚拟机规范被,JVM栈叫Java栈。

以此专业允许JVM栈是固定大小或者是动态扩展及基于测算的获得。

要是JVM栈大小是稳的,每个JVM栈被单独的抉择当栈被创造时。

每个JVM实现可供次要用户控制因JVM栈的始大小,同样的动态扩展的或者contractingJVM栈,控制以最为要命及太小尺寸。

下是JVM栈的异常条件

一经算后线程要求一个复怪之JVM栈比由所许的,JVM抛来StackOverflowError.

假若JVM栈是动态扩展的,当扩展中没足够的内存还是无足够的内存去初始化JVM栈的一个线程,JVM抛出OutOfMemoryError

粗略的话

JVM中每个线程有一个JVM栈,与线程一起为创造。每个JVM栈用来存frames。

frame is used to store data and partial results, as well as to
perform dynamic linking, return values for methods, and dispatch
exceptions.

 Local Variables

Operand Stacks

 Dynamic Linking

Normal Method Invocation Completion

Abrupt Method Invocation Completion

frames

2)VM stack(vm 栈)

Each Java Virtual Machine thread has a private Java Virtual Machine
stack
, created at the same time as the thread. A Java Virtual Machine
stack stores frames. A Java Virtual Machine stack is analogous to the
stack of a conventional language such as C: it holds local variables
and partial results, and plays a part in method invocation and return.
Because the Java Virtual Machine stack is never manipulated directly
except to push and pop frames, frames may be heap allocated. The
memory for a Java Virtual Machine stack does not need to be
contiguous.

stack 这个事物呢 也是线程私有的,随线程生随线程死。其实stack
这个东西还有下级,就是stack frame。 stack frame
是指向跟方的,简单的吧,每一个method被实施之时候会创造一个stack
frame 被push到vm stack 中,方法为实施到位后会pop出vm
stack。真正存数据的地方实际是stack frame。vm stack类似一个集聚。
stack frame中满怀了三种东西:

  • Local Vairable

  • 中心类型(int,long,char,boolean…….)

  • 目标类型的援
  • returnAddress的类型

  • Operand Stack

  • data frame
    倘请vm stack 大于了
    vm可以成熟之大大小小,java会丢弃来stackoverflowerror的很

Native Stack 和stack的用法差不多,但是是被java程序中跑native
language的时候利用的

java 堆 Heap

The Java Virtual Machine has a heap that is shared among all Java
Virtual Machine threads. The heap is the run-time data area from which
memory for all class instances and arrays is allocated.

The heap is created on virtual machine start-up. Heap storage for
objects is reclaimed by an automatic storage management system (known as
garbage collector); objects are never explicitly deallocated. The
Java Virtual Machine assumes no particular type of automatic storage
management system, and the storage management technique may be chosen
according to the implementor’s system requirements. The heap may be of a
fixed size or may be expanded as required by the computation and may be
contracted if a larger heap becomes unnecessary. The memory for the heap
does not need to be contiguous.

A Java Virtual Machine implementation may provide the programmer or the
user control over the initial size of the heap, as well as, if the heap
can be dynamically expanded or contracted, control over the maximum and
minimum heap size.

The following exceptional condition is associated with the
heap:

If a computation requires more heap than can be made available by the
automatic storage management system, the Java Virtual Machine throws
an OutOfMemoryError.

3)Heap(堆)

The Java Virtual Machine has a heap that is shared among all Java
Virtual Machine threads. The heap is the run-time data area from which
memory for all class instances and arrays is allocated.
The heap is created on virtual machine start-up. Heap storage for
objects is reclaimed by an automatic storage management system (known
as a garbage collector); objects are never explicitly deallocated.
The Java Virtual Machine assumes no particular type of automatic
storage management system, and the storage management technique may be
chosen according to the implementor’s system requirements. The heap
may be of a fixed size or may be expanded as required by the
computation and may be contracted if a larger heap becomes
unnecessary. The memory for the heap does not need to be contiguous.

堆是挤占内存最可怜一块的地方,他是线程共享的也就是说在java程序运行的时段创建的直到java程序结束。主要是存实例对象与数组数据。也就GC发生最多的地方。另外说一样碰
堆中存放的数额的情理地址不是连的
学过汇编的伙伴应该好知晓。如果这个地方要求的尺寸大于了vm
所承受的轻重会保outofmemoryerror 也便是传说被的OOM

方法区 Method Area

The Java Virtual Machine has a method area that is shared among all
Java Virtual Machine threads. The method area is analogous to the
storage area for compiled code of a conventional language or analogous
to the “text” segment in an operating system process. It stores
per-class structures such as the run-time constant pool, field and
method data, and the code for methods and constructors, including the
special methods
(§2.9)
used in class and instance initialization and interface initialization.

The method area is created on virtual machine start-up. Although the
method area is logically part of the heap, simple implementations may
choose not to either garbage collect or compact it. This specification
does not mandate the location of the method area or the policies used to
manage compiled code. The method area may be of a fixed size or may be
expanded as required by the computation and may be contracted if a
larger method area becomes unnecessary. The memory for the method area
does not need to be contiguous.

A Java Virtual Machine implementation may provide the programmer or the
user control over the initial size of the method area, as well as, in
the case of a varying-size method area, control over the maximum and
minimum method area size.

The following exceptional condition is associated with the method
area:

If memory in the method area cannot be made available to satisfy an
allocation request, the Java Virtual Machine throws an OutOfMemoryError.

4)Method Area(方法区)

The Java Virtual Machine has a method area that is shared among all
Java Virtual Machine threads. The method area is analogous to the
storage area for compiled code of a conventional language or analogous
to the “text” segment in an operating system process. It stores
per-class structures such as the run-time constant pool, field and
method data, and the code for methods and constructors, including the
special methods used in class and instance initialization and
interface initialization.

方法区也是线程共享的严重性是故来囤积 vm
已经加载号的好像信息,静态变量,等等。同时在方块区里面来同等块是
常量池,也不怕是我们平素因故final创建出来的变量都见面叫放到这个里面。这个地方产生GC比较少,但是要是跨越大小为会扔来OOM的不可开交

运行时量池 Run-Time Constant Pool

run-time constant pool is a per-class or per-interface run-time
representation of the constant_pool table in a class file
(§4.4).
It contains several kinds of constants, ranging from numeric literals
known at compile-time to method and field references that must be
resolved at run-time. The run-time constant pool serves a function
similar to that of a symbol table for a conventional programming
language, although it contains a wider range of data than a typical
symbol table.

运作时量池是每个接近还是每个接口在类似公事之常量池表的运行时表示。他饱含了几种常量,从编译时之数字文字及点子及援字段,必须于运作时解决。运行时量池服务方程式类似于健康编程语言的记表,尽管其蕴含了一个异常范围的数量要非是突出的符号表。

Each run-time constant pool is allocated from the Java Virtual
Machine’s method area
(§2.5.4).
The run-time constant pool for a class or interface is constructed when
the class or interface is created
(§5.3)
by the Java Virtual Machine.

The following exceptional condition is associated with the construction
of the run-time constant pool for a class or
interface:

When creating a class or interface, if the construction of the run-time
constant pool requires more memory than can be made available in the
method area of the Java Virtual Machine, the Java Virtual Machine throws
an OutOfMemoryError.

See §5 (Loading, Linking, and
Initializing
) for
information about the construction of the run-time constant pool.

2.栗子

面介绍了平文山会海之内存分布每一样片都起温馨之用意以及特色,我们连下去拿一个板栗来当实例分析一下:

Object obj = new Object();

简单吧,但是深扒还是可以扒出很多东西的。拆分成2块来拓展剖析。
Object obj 在相应的stack frame中之local
variable表中坐reference类型出现。
new Object()呢
在heap中开发了同样片以存储object类型所有实例数据的内存。heap中还须含有相应之对象型数据类型(interface,super
class,class….)
reference
里面就是是一个对准对象的援所以现在底问题就是怎样把他们2单链接起来(=)。有2栽艺术可链接,不同之vm采用不同之法子:
术1)指向heap中之句炳,然后由句炳指向实际的实例,什么意思吧,就是间接指向。如果是运用这种艺术那么在heap中必定会开始有同样片存放句炳的内存

heap中2片地方 句炳池和实例池,句炳用来找到实例和对象类型数据
措施2)直接访问,就是取消了句炳了。直接存储实例的地方,直接看到实例数据

两边的得失:句炳的话,如果数量发现改变移动
reference里面的值是免见面更换的。直接看的口舌效率还好速度再快,sum hotspot
vm就是之所以的一直访问.

先是首文章到此处了啦。主要介绍了vm的内存分配,如果大家只要测试oom可以修改vm对应的参数。

地方方法栈 Native Method Stacks

An implementation of the Java Virtual Machine may use conventional
stacks, colloquially called “C stacks,” to support native methods
(methods written in a language other than the Java programming
language). Native method stacks may also be used by the implementation
of an interpreter for the Java Virtual Machine’s instruction set in a
language such as C. Java Virtual Machine implementations that cannot
load nativemethods and that do not themselves rely on conventional
stacks need not supply native method stacks. If supplied, native method
stacks are typically allocated per thread when each thread is created.

This specification permits native method stacks either to be of a fixed
size or to dynamically expand and contract as required by the
computation. If the native method stacks are of a fixed size, the size
of each native method stack may be chosen independently when that stack
is created.

A Java Virtual Machine implementation may provide the programmer or the
user control over the initial size of the native method stacks, as well
as, in the case of varying-size native method stacks, control over the
maximum and minimum method stack sizes.

The following exceptional conditions are associated with native method
stacks:

If the computation in a thread requires a larger native method stack
than is permitted, the Java Virtual Machine throws
a StackOverflowError.

If native method stacks can be dynamically expanded and native method
stack expansion is attempted but insufficient memory can be made
available, or if insufficient memory can be made available to create the
initial native method stack for a new thread, the Java Virtual Machine
throws an OutOfMemoryError.

参考

深切了解Java虚拟机 周志明 著

JVM规范链接

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